Education & Training

Reliability of AFIS for Matching 10-Print Sets


Charles A. Shoniregun & Stephen Crosier, Securing Biometrics Applications (Springer 2007).

John R. Vacca, Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems (Butterworth-Heinemann 2007).

Christophe Champod, Chris Lennard, Pierre Margot & Milutin Stoilovic, Fingerprints and Other Ridge Skin Impressions (CRC Press 2004).

Peter Komarinski, Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) (Elsevier Academic Press 2004).

James Wayman, Anil Jain, Davide Maltoni & Dario Maio, eds., Biometric Systems: Technology, Design and Performance Evaluation (Springer 2004).

Nalini Ratha & Ruud Bolle, Automatic Fingerprint Recognition Systems (Springer 2003).

Ambika Suman, Human Factors that Affected the Benchmarking of NAFIS: A Case Study, in Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, 7th International Conference, KES 2003 Oxford, UK, September 3-5, 2003 Proceedings, Part II (Springer 2003).

Henry C. Lee, Advances in Fingerprint Technology (2nd ed., CRC Press 2001).

Simon A. Cole, Suspect Identities: A History of Fingerprinting and Criminal Identification (Harvard University Press 2001).

Joseph L. Peterson & Julie Moore, The Status of AFIS Systems Worldwide: Issues of Organization, Performance and Impact, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Fingerprint Detection and Identification (Joseph Almog & Eliot Springer, eds., Israel National Police 1996).


Uri Argaman, Alan Chaikovsky, Alex Balman & Nisim Mizrachi, Solving the Puzzle: Joining Separated Latent Fingerprint Parts into One Whole Print for an AFIS Search, 57 Journal of Forensic Identification 370 (May 2007).

Lei Meng, Guang-Da Liu, Guang-Fu Deng, Ping Zhu & Lei Tian, Fingerprint Acquisition System and Image Enhancement Processing Based on FPS200, 25 Journal of Jilin University 258 (May 2007).

Sharon Allen, Crime Scene Myths , Law & Order, Vol. 55, Issue 4, Apr. 1, 2007, at 90.

Nicole Egli, Christophe Champod & Pierre Margot, Evidence Evaluation in Fingerprint Comparison and Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems—Modelling Within Finger Variability, 167 Forensic Science International 189 (Apr. 2007) (DOI:10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.06.054).

Anil K. Jain, Yi Chen & Meltem Demirkus, Pores and Ridges: High-Resolution Fingerprint Matching Using Level 3 Features, 29 Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 15 (Jan. 2007).

Cedric Neumann, Christophe Champod, Roberto Puch-Solis, Nicole Egli, Alexandre Anthonioz & Andie Bromage-Griffiths, Computation of Likelihood Ratios in Fingerprint Identification for Configurations of Any Number of Minutiae, 52 Journal of Forensic Sciences 54 (Jan. 2007) (DOI:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00327.x)

Simon A. Cole, "Implicit Testing": Can Casework Validate Forensic Techniques?, 46 Jurimetrics Journal 117 (Winter 2006).

Simon A. Cole, The Prevalence and Potential Causes of Wrongful Conviction by Fingerprint Evidence, 37 Golden Gate University Law Review 39 (Fall 2006).

Michael Cherry & Edward Imwinkelried, A Cautionary Note About Fingerprint Analysis and Reliance on Digital Technology, Champion, Aug. 30, 2006, at 27.

Steve Scarborough, Rick Henning, & Gordon Dechman, An Advanced and Innovative Workflow for an AFIS Configuration, 56 Journal of Forensic Identification 526 (July 2006).

Sha Liu, Automated Fingerprint Identification System Based on Intel XScale PXA255, 28 Journal of Nanjing University of Technology 104 (May 2006).

Itiel E. Dror & David Charlton, Why Experts Make Errors, 600 Journal of Forensic Identification 56 (Feb. 2006).

Bruce Budowle, JoAnn Buscaglia, & Rebecca Schwartz Perlman, Review of the Scientific Basis for Friction Ridge Comparisons as a Means of Identification: Committee Findings and Recommendations, Forensic Science Communication Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan. 2006.

Sheila Dewan, F.B.I. Apologizes for Failing to Identify Murder Suspect, New York Times, May 5, 2005, at A20 (quoting Assistant Director of Criminal Justice Information Services, Thomas Bush III, as saying the FBI's system is over 98% accurate).

Simon A. Cole, Grandfathering Evidence: Fingerprint Admissibility Rulings from Jennings to Llera Plaza and Back Again, 41 American Criminal Law Review 1189 (Summer 2004).

Tamara F. Lawson, Can Fingerprints Lie?: Re-weighing Fingerprint Evidence in Criminal Jury Trials, 31 American Journal of Criminal Law 1 (Fall 2003).

Michael Specter, Do Fingerprints Lie?, The New Yorker, Vol. 78, Issue 13, May 27, 2002, at 96.

Robert Epstein, Fingerprints Meet Daubert: The Myth of Fingerprint Science is Revealed, 75 Southern California Law Review 605 (Mar. 2002). at 96.


Federal Bureau of Investigation, Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System

SWGFAST, Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study, and Technology

Ridges & Furrows, quotes Ed German from February 2002: "As of last fall there were four states in the US where completely "lights-out" ten print to ten print identifications were effected by AFIS with no human intervention... and reported back to agencies as positive identifications (again, we are talking only ten print to ten print). The threshold matching score required for such lights-out identifications was based on years and years of experience with their systems. The error rate has been zero, though as with human comparisons they do routine QA/QC reviews and special reviews if a defendant questions the ident, etc.. The no-human-intervention-identification only occurs when the matching score is sufficiently high... but, it is a reality."