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Calmatives & Less Lethal Weapons

Articles | Books & Reports | Cases



Articles

Garry Abrams, It's the Thought that Counts in Police Use of Less-Lethal Projectiles, L.A. Daily J., Oct. 31, 2000, at 1.

Garry Abrams, Just Shoot Me So I Don't Have to Read More on Taser's Problems, L.A. Daily J., Jan. 13, 2005, at 1.

Garry Abrams, Wounds From Less-than-Lethal Weapons Include a Schism Among Protest Groups, L.A. Daily J., Aug. 16, 2000, at 1.

Edward A. Adams, Stun-Gun Assault Convictions Upheld by Appellate Division (New York), N.Y. Law Journal, May 24, 1991, at 1.

Eric Adams, Shoot to Not Kill, Popular Science, May 2003, at 89.

John B. Alexander, Non-Lethal Weapons to Gain Relevancy in Future Conflicts, National Defense, March 2002, at 30.

Alleged Torture Brings Focus on Police Use of Stun Guns, Criminal Justice Newsletter, May 15, 1985, at 3.

Terence B. Allen, Discussion of 'Effects of the Taser in Fatalities Involving Police Confrontation.' (response to R.N. Kornblum and S.K. Reddy, Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 36, p. 434, March 1991), 37 Journal of Forensic Sciences 956 (July 1992).

Nuha Al-Radi, Comment: The New Hiroshima, Iraqui Crisis Report, Mar. 2003, at 6 (Institute for War & Peace Reporting).

Jurgen Altman, Acoustic Weapons--A Prospective Assessment, 9 Science & Global Security 165 (2001).

Massimo Annati, Non-Lethal Weapons Revisited, Military Technology, Mar. 2007.

B. Arbab-Dehkordi, EMDS - A User Friendly Interface, Computers & Law, Dec. 1984, at 5.

Associated Press, Raid Shows Danger of Gassing Crowds, Lawrence Journal-World, Oct. 29, 2002.

Associated Press, Siege Gas ‘was Morphine Spray,’ CNN, Oct. 29, 2002.

David Bailey, 'Inoperability' Won't Work as Stun-Gun Defense: Panel, Chicago Law Bulletin, Dec. 20, 1996, at 1.

Laura Bailey, New Weapons Would Warn Vehicles at Checkpoints, Marine Corps Times, June 27, 2005, at 6.

Tresa Baldas, Stun Gun Maker Faces Suits by Victims, Police, National Law Journal, Aug. 15, 2005.

Bryan Ballantyne, Medical Management of the Traumatic Consequences of Civil Unrest Incidents: Causation, Clinical Approaches, Needs and Advanced Planning Criteria, 25 Toxicological Reviews 155 (2006).

Antony Barnett, US Plan to Strike Enemy with Valium, Common Dreams, May 26, 2002 (http://www.commondreams.org)

Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt, Morton A. Barlaz, Detlef R. Knappe & Peter Kjeldsen, Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial Chemicals in Landfills, 40 Environmental Science & Technology 4219 (July 1, 2006).

Ronald Bayer, Lethal Injection: No Less Barbaric, L.A. Daily J., Aug. 2, 1983, at 4.

Erik Beard, The Guilt-Free Soldier, Village Voice, Jan. 22, 2003.

Martin Berg, U.S. Judge Takes Steps to Ban Using Stun Belts on Defendants, L.A. Daily J., Nov. 17, 1998, at 1.

F.W. Beswick, Chemical Agents Used In Riot Control and Warfare, 2 Human Toxicology 247 (Apr. 1983).

Mary Billard, Stun-Gun Shocker for Queens Lawyer, American Lawyer, June 1985, at 130.

Peter G. Blain, Tear Gases And Irritant Incapacitants 1-chloroacetophenone, 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile and dibenz[b,f]-1,4-oxazepine, 22 Toxicological Reviews 103 (2003).

Peter Blumberg, Panel OKs Suit after Attack by City Police Dog: Resisting Arrest is No Reason to Stop Civil Rights Claim; Pepper Spray, L.A. Daily J., Jan. 11, 2005, at 1.

Julian Borgo, US Weapons Secrets Exposed, The Guardian, Oct. 29, 2002.

Elliot Borin, Non-Lethal Weapons Shoot to Hurt, Wired Magazine, Sept. 30, 2002.

Claire Bowles, Non-Lethal Weapons Kept Secret, New Scientist, May 8, 2002.

Lee Bowman, Conflict with Iraq: Military use of Nonlethal Weapons is Controversial, Naples Daily News, Mar. 27, 2003.

Kerry Boyd, Military Authorized to Use Riot Control Agents in Iraq, Arms Control Today, May 2003.

Kerry Boyd, Report Calls for Development of Nonlethal Weapons, Arms Control Today, Dec. 2002.

Kerry Boyd, Rumsfeld Wants to Use Riot control Agents in Combat, Arms Control Today, Mar. 2003.

Kerry Boyd, U.S. Grapples With Use of Nonlethal Agents, Arms Control Today, Apr. 2003.

William E. Bozeman & James E. Winslow, Medical Aspects of Less-Lethal Weapons, The Internet Journal of Rescue and Disaster Medicine, 2005.

Phil Brennan, Rumsfeld: New Rules for Non-Lethal Combat, NewsMax, Feb. 6, 2003.

Julie Brienza, Stun Belts Zapped by Civil Liberties Groups, Trail, Apr. 1999, at 99.

Allison Torres Burtka, Electric Shock from Tasers Can Injure and Kill, Lawsuits Claim, Trial, May 2005, at 16.

Allison Torres Burtka, Tasers Continue to Draw Scrutiny, Trial, Jan. 2006, at 74.

David Castellon & C. Mark Brinkley, Zapping the Enemy (Vehicle-Mounted Active Denial System), Air Force Times, Dec. 24, 2001, at 14.

Melissa A. Celli, Jumping the Gun: Can Municipalities be Held Liable under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 for Failing to Provide Police Officers with Less-Lethal Weapons? , 39 Suffolk U. L. Rev. 185 (December 25, 2005).

H.X. Chai, Y.G. Xie, Q.X. Chen & Y. Huang, An Experimental Observation on the Calmative and Antiepileptic Effects of a New Synthetic Drug SC1001-Aminum Intupaias, 20 Journal of West China University of Medical Sciences 21 (Mar. 1989).

Anthony Charles, et al., Penetrating Bean Bag Injury: Intrathoracic Complication Of A Nonlethal Weapon, 53 Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 997 (Nov. 2002).

Victoria Clarke, Letter, Blair May be Sincere, But He is Also Wrong, The Independent on Sunday, Mar. 9, 2003.

Andy Coghlan, What Drugs Can Stun a Crowd in Seconds, New Scientist, Nov. 2, 2002, at 7.

Joseph W. Cook, David P. Fiely & Maura T. McGowan, Non-Lethal Weapons: Technologies, Legalities, and Potential Policies, Airpower Journal, 1995.

Margaret-Ann Coppernoll, The Nonlethal Weapons Debate, 52 Naval War College Review 112, (Spring 1999).

J.A. Coutts, Stun Guns within the Firearms Act, 2 Journal of Criminal Law 262 (August 1988).

Terry C. Cox, Dennis J. Buchholz & David J. Wolf, Blunt Force Head Trauma from Police Impact Weapons: Some Skeletal and Neuropsychological Considerations, 15 J. Police Sci. & Admin. 56 (Mar. 1987).

Shelley A. Nieto Dahlberg, The REACT Security Belt: Stunning Prisoners and Human Rights Groups into Questioning Whether its Use is Permissible Under the United States and Texas Constitutions, 30 St. Mary's Law Journal 239 (Fall 1998).

Edwin A. Davison, A Case for More Effective Non-Lethals, Marine Corps Gazette, June 2000, at 27.

D. de Brito, et al., The Injury Pattern Of a New Law Enforcement Weapon: The Police Bean Bag, 38 Annals of Emergency Medicine 383 (Oct. 2001).

Beth Defalco, Taser: SEC Closes Two Investigations of Stun Gun Maker, Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, Dec. 13, 2005, at 2.

John T.Dillaplain, Nonlethal Concepts Implications for Air Force Intelligence, Airpower Journal, 1994.

P.J. Downey, Weapons and Technology, 1988 New Zealand Law Journal 61 (March 1988).

James C. Duncan, A Primer on the Employment of Non Lethal Weapons, 45 Naval Law Review 1 (1998).

Daniel G. Dupont, Storm Before the Calm, Scientific American, Feb. 2003, at 17.

Editorial, Eye on Pepper Spray, L.A. Daily J., Nov. 7, 1997, at 6.

Editorial, Infernal Weapons (Laser Gun that Causes Blindness), L.A. Daily J., Nov. 29, 1994, at 6.

Editorial, On Law Enforcement ... Pepper Spray Monitoring, L.A. Daily J., Sept. 26, 1994, at 6.

George Edmonson, Super-Secret Microwave Weapons May be Used in Iraq, MSNBC News, Aug. 15, 2002.

Paul Elias, Military Confronts Weapons Quandary, Tulsa World, Mar. 3, 2003.

Paul Elias, Tear Gas Use Induces Debate U.S. Plan for Non-Lethal Agents in Iraq May Violate Treaties, Houston Chronicle, Mar. 3, 2003.

Paul Elias, War Use of ‘Safe’ Gas Tricky Proposal, Akron Beacon Journal, Mar. 3, 2003.

Lois Ember, Non-Lethal Weapons, Government & Policy, Apr. 22, 2004, at 58.

Cheryl Erwin & Robert Philibert, Shocking Treatment: The Use of Tasers in Psychiatric Care, 34 Journal of Law Medicine & Ethics 116 (Spring 2006).

E. Euripidou, R. MacLehose & A. Fletcher, An Investigation into the Short Term and Medium Term Health Impacts of Personal Incapacitant Sprays: A Follow Up of Patients Reported to the National Poisons Information Service (London), 21 Emergency Medicine Journal 548 (2004).

Feedback: US Bio/Chem Weapons Patent, New Scientist, Mar. 4, 2006, at 96.

Geoff S. Fein, Non-Lethal Weapons Find Their Niche in Urban Combat, National Defense, March 2004, at 14.

John J. Fialka & Marilyn Chase, U.S. Agency Set to Issue Report On Nonlethal- Weapon Science, Wall Street Journal, Nov 1. 2002, at B2.

David P. Fidler, The Meaning of Moscow: 'Non-Lethal' Weapons and International Law in the Early 21st Century, 859 International Review of the Red Cross 525 (Sept. 30, 2005).

David P. Fidler, 'Non-Lethal' Weapons and International Law: Three Perspectives on the Future, 17 Medicine, Conflict & Survival 194 (July-September 2001).

Chris Ford, As Protest Debate Grows, Pepper Spray OK'd at DNC, L.A. Daily J., July 7, 2000, at 1.

Chris Ford, Panel Checks 'Less-Lethal' Weapons, L.A. Daily J., Dec. 20, 2000, at 1.

David A. Fulghum, Pentagon Reveals Mobile Pain Ray, Aviation Week & Space Technology, May 7, 2001, at 82.

William Glaberson, Electric Restraint's Use Stirs Charges of Cruelty To Inmates, Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, June 8, 1999, at 1.

Russell W. Glenn, Letting God Rest: Use of Nonlethal Weapons in Peacekeeping Efforts, 140 Armed Forces Journal International 49 (May 2003).

Craig Gordon, Experts Name Deadly Gas, Global Security, Oct. 29, 2002.

Peter N. Grabosky, Technology & Crime Control, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, Australian Institute of Criminology, January 1998.

John Granfield, Jami Onnen & Charles S. Petty, Pepper Spray and In-Custody Deaths, Science and Technology, International Association of Chiefs of Police, March 1994.

Leopold Gregorac, ADT/ADS - Weapons of the 21st Century?, Military Technology, May 2004, at 40.

Michael L. Gross, Bioethics and Armed Conflict: Mapping the Moral Dimensions of Medicine and War, 34 Hastings Center Report 22 (Nov./Dec. 2004).

David Hambling, Instant Expert: Weapons Technology, New Scientist Tech., Sept. 4, 2006.

David Hambling, Star Wars Hit the Streets, New Scientist, Oct. 12, 2002, at 42.

David Hambling, Stun Weapons to Target Crowds, New Scientist, Jun. 19, 2004, at 24.

Edward Hammond, Averting Bioterrorism Begins with US Reforms, Synthesis/Regeneration, Jan. 2002.

Edward Hammond, Bombing the Mind: The Pentagon's Program for Psychopharmalogical Warfare, Counter Punch, July 2, 2002.

Edward Hammond, US Violates International Law: The Pentagon's Secret Chemical Weapons Program, Counter Punch, Sept. 25, 2002.

Charles J. Hanley, In Iraq, U.S. Tests Limits of Chemical Weapons Ban, The Victoria Advocate, Aug. 18, 2003, at 1.

Charles J. Hanley, When is it Riot Control, Not Warfare?, The Commercial Appeal, Aug. 24, 2003.

Alastair Hay, Out of the Straitjacket: The US Wants To Use Potentially Lethal Chemicals Against Iraq - Despite The Fact That This Would Contravene International Law, The Guardian, Mar. 12, 2003.

Alastair Hay, Rita Giacaman, Ramzi Sansur & Steven Rose, Skin Injuries Caused by New Riot Control Agent Used Against Civilians on the West Bank, 22 Medicine, Conflict & Survival 283 (Oct. 2006).

Sid Heal, Crowds, Mobs, and Nonlethal Weapons, Military Review, Mar/Apr 2000, at 2.

Douglas Holdstock, Chemical and Biological Warfare: Some Ethical Dilemmas, 15 Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 356 (2006).

Kevin D.Horton, Paula Burgess, Shannon Rossiter & Wendy E. Kaye, Secondary Contamination of Emergency Department Personnel From O-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile Exposure, 45 Annals of Emergency Medicine 655 (2002).

Joseph M. Howie, Electronic Media Discovery: What You Can't See Can Help (Or Hurt) You, 29 Trial 70 (Jan. 1993).

Howard Hu, et al., Tear Gas: Harassing Agent or Toxic Chemical Weapon?, 262 Journal of the American Medical Association 660 (Aug. 4, 1989).

D. Hughes, et al., Plastic Baton Round Injuries, 22 Emergency Medicine Journal 111 (Feb. 2005).

Institute for Law and Justice, Law Enforcement Options: Newsletter on Less-Than-Lethal Technology Development (1995).

David Isenberg, Next Up: 'Non-Lethal' Chemicals That Kill, Asia Times, April 2003, at 1.

David Isenberg, US Chemical 'Non-Lethal' Weapons in Iraq: A Violation of the Chemical Weapons Convention?, Occasional Papers on International Security Policy, March 2003.

Richard B. Jackson & Jason Ray Hutchison, Lasers Are Lawful As Non-Lethal Weapons, Army Lawyer, August 1, 2006.

James R. Jauchem, et al., Acidosis, Lactate, Electrolytes, Muscle Enzymes, and Other Factors In The Blood Of Sus Scrofa Following Repeated TASER Exposures, 161 Forensic Science International 20 (Aug. 10, 2006).

Mark Johnson, Online Auction Site eBay Agrees to Block Stun-Gun Sales to Bidders from New York, Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, Oct. 11, 2005, at 2.

Bryant Jordan, Scents and Sensibility, Navy Times, Jan. 31, 2005, at 18.

Jay Judge & James R. Schirott, L.A. Police Dept. Cleared of Excessive Force Charges, Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, March 28, 1991, at 3.

Michael Keaney, US Military: Chemical Weapons Alert in Iraq, The Guardian, Mar. 12, 2003.

Matt Kelley, Military Considers Drugs to Calm Crowds, The Milwaukee Sentinel Journal, Sept. 26 2002.

Matt Kelley, Pentagon Discusses Ways to Use Chemicals to Calm Rioters, Sign on San Diego, Sept. 25, 2002.

John M. Kenny, Are You Sure It's Nonlethal?, 127 U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 70 (April 2001).

John M. Kenny, What's So Special about Non-Lethal Weapons' Human Effects— Everything, Marine Corps Gazette, June 2000, at 28.

Henry S. Kenyon, Noisemakers Called to Arms: Cutting-Edge Sonic Equipment Offers Military Applications, Signal, July 2002, at 56.

Stephen James Kerr, Gas Used in Russian Tragedy Part of U.S. Crowd Control Plan, NOW Toronto, October 31, 2002.

Vincent Kiernan, War Over Weapons That Can’t Kill, New Scientist, Dec. 11, 1993, at 14.

Brad Knickerbocker, US Moves into Emerging Bioweapon Era, Global Security: The Christian Science Monitor, Nov. 4, 2002.

Steven Komarow, Pentagon Deploys Array of Non-Lethal Weapons, USA Today, Jul. 25, 2005.

David A. Koplow, Tangled Up In Khaki and Blue: Lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons In Recent Confrontations, 36 Georgetown Journal of International Law 703 (Spring 2005).

Ronald N. Kornblum & Sara K.Reddy, Effects of the TASER in Fatalities Involving Police Confrontation, 36 Journal of Forensic Sciences 434 (March 1991).

Geoffrey Lean, US Prepares to Use Toxic Gases in Iraq, The Independent on Sunday, Mar. 2, 2003.

Geoffrey Lean, Toxic Gas, Drugs in Bush Arsenal, The New Zealand Herald, Mar. 4, 2003.

Nick Lewer, Nonlethal Weapons: Will Non-lethal Weapons Offer Kinder, Gentler Warfare or Expand the Options for Armed Forces to Inflict Pain and Suffering?, Forum for Applied Research & Public Policy, 1999.

Nick Lewer, Non Lethal Weapons: Operational and Policy Developments, The Lancet, December 2003, at 20.

Christian Lowe, U.S. Seeks Better Nonlethal Weapons, Defense News, March 28, 2005, at 7.

K. Maguire, et al., Injuries Caused By The Attenuated Energy Projectile: The Latest Less Lethal Option, 24 Emergency Medicine Journal 103 (Feb. 2007).

Wayne C. McDaniel, et al., Cardiac Safety of Neuromuscular Incapacitating Defensive Devices, 28 Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology S284 (Jan. 2005).

A.T. McPhee, Stink Bomb, 88 Current Science 10 (Jan. 17, 2003).

Bill Mesler, The Pentagon’s Non-Lethal Gas, The Nation, Feb. 17, 2003, at 19.

Greg Meyer, Efforts to Find Less Lethal Weapons Miss Their Mark, L.A. Daily J., June 18, 2002, at 6.

Greg Meyer, Ode to the Taser Gun: The Device Gives Police a Humane Way To Subdue Violent People, L.A. Daily J., Apr. 22, 1991, at 6.

Stephen Mihm, The Quest for the Nonkiller App., New York Times Magazine, Apr. 25, 2004.

Stephen Mihm, Stench Warfare, New York Times Magazine, Dec. 15, 2002, at 126.

Judith Miller & William J. Broad, Hostage Drama in Moscow: The Toxic Agent; U.S. Suspects Opiate in Gas in Russia Raid, New York Times, Oct. 29, 2002, at A1.

Neal Miller, Less-Than-Lethal Force Weaponry: Law Enforcement and Correctional Agency Civil Law Liability for the Use of Excessive Force, 28 Creighton Law Review 733 (April 1995).

Mohamed A. Mughal & Paul D. Fedele, The Improved Response Program, Army Chemical Review, February 2001.

Justin Mullins, Moscow Drama Spurs Hunt For 'Non Lethals,' New Scientist, Dec. 21, 2002, at 23.

Non-Lethal Weaponry and Non-Proliferation, Symposium on Security and Liberty, Transcript, 19 Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy 347 (Spring 2005).

Erik L. Nutley, Non-Lethal Weapons, Center for Strategy and Technology, Aug. 2003.

Edward P. O'Connell & John T. Dillaplain, Nonlethal Concepts Implications for Air Force Intelligence, Airpower Journal, Winter 1994.

E.J. Olajos & H. Salem, Riot Control Agents: Pharmacology, Toxicology, Biochemistry and Chemistry, 21 Journal of Applied Toxicology 355 (Sept/Oct 2001).

Marc Parent, Army’s Hallucinogenic Weapons Unveiled, Jones Report, Apr. 8, 2007.

A. Pearson, Incapacitating Biochemical Weapons: Science, Technology, and Policy for the 21st Century, 13 Nonproliferation Review 151 (July 2006).

Kerri Phillips & James Godfrey, A Dangerous Weapon in Dangerous Hands, 24 Alternative Law Journal 71 (April 1999).

Press Release, Sunshine Project, Non-Lethal Weapons Research in the U.S.: Calmatives and Malodorants (July 2001) (available at http://www.sunshine-project.org/publications/bk/bk8en.html).

Press Release, Sunshine Project, The MCRU Calmatives Study and JNLWD: A Summary of (Public) Facts (September 19, 2002) (available at http://www.sunshine-project.org/incapacitants/mcrucalmfacts.html).

Press Release, Sunshine Project, US Military Operating a Secret Chemical Weapons Program (September 24, 2002) (available at http://www.sunshine-project.org/publications/pr/pr240902.html).

James Randerson, US in Danger of Breaking Chemical Weapons Treaty,
Calmatives & Less Lethal Weapons

Articles | Books & Reports | Cases



Articles

Garry Abrams, It's the Thought that Counts in Police Use of Less-Lethal Projectiles, L.A. Daily J., Oct. 31, 2000, at 1.

Garry Abrams, Just Shoot Me So I Don't Have to Read More on Taser's Problems, L.A. Daily J., Jan. 13, 2005, at 1.

Garry Abrams, Wounds From Less-than-Lethal Weapons Include a Schism Among Protest Groups, L.A. Daily J., Aug. 16, 2000, at 1.

Edward A. Adams, Stun-Gun Assault Convictions Upheld by Appellate Division (New York), N.Y. Law Journal, May 24, 1991, at 1.

Eric Adams, Shoot to Not Kill, Popular Science, May 2003, at 89.

John B. Alexander, Non-Lethal Weapons to Gain Relevancy in Future Conflicts, National Defense, March 2002, at 30.

Alleged Torture Brings Focus on Police Use of Stun Guns, Criminal Justice Newsletter, May 15, 1985, at 3.

Terence B. Allen, Discussion of 'Effects of the Taser in Fatalities Involving Police Confrontation.' (response to R.N. Kornblum and S.K. Reddy, Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 36, p. 434, March 1991), 37 Journal of Forensic Sciences 956 (July 1992).

Nuha Al-Radi, Comment: The New Hiroshima, Iraqui Crisis Report, Mar. 2003, at 6 (Institute for War & Peace Reporting).

Jurgen Altman, Acoustic Weapons--A Prospective Assessment, 9 Science & Global Security 165 (2001).

Massimo Annati, Non-Lethal Weapons Revisited, Military Technology, Mar. 2007.

B. Arbab-Dehkordi, EMDS - A User Friendly Interface, Computers & Law, Dec. 1984, at 5.

Associated Press, Raid Shows Danger of Gassing Crowds, Lawrence Journal-World, Oct. 29, 2002.

Associated Press, Siege Gas ‘was Morphine Spray,’ CNN, Oct. 29, 2002.

David Bailey, 'Inoperability' Won't Work as Stun-Gun Defense: Panel, Chicago Law Bulletin, Dec. 20, 1996, at 1.

Laura Bailey, New Weapons Would Warn Vehicles at Checkpoints, Marine Corps Times, June 27, 2005, at 6.

Tresa Baldas, Stun Gun Maker Faces Suits by Victims, Police, National Law Journal, Aug. 15, 2005.

Bryan Ballantyne, Medical Management of the Traumatic Consequences of Civil Unrest Incidents: Causation, Clinical Approaches, Needs and Advanced Planning Criteria, 25 Toxicological Reviews 155 (2006).

Antony Barnett, US Plan to Strike Enemy with Valium, Common Dreams, May 26, 2002 (http://www.commondreams.org)

Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt, Morton A. Barlaz, Detlef R. Knappe & Peter Kjeldsen, Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial Chemicals in Landfills, 40 Environmental Science & Technology 4219 (July 1, 2006).

Ronald Bayer, Lethal Injection: No Less Barbaric, L.A. Daily J., Aug. 2, 1983, at 4.

Erik Beard, The Guilt-Free Soldier, Village Voice, Jan. 22, 2003.

Martin Berg, U.S. Judge Takes Steps to Ban Using Stun Belts on Defendants, L.A. Daily J., Nov. 17, 1998, at 1.

F.W. Beswick, Chemical Agents Used In Riot Control and Warfare, 2 Human Toxicology 247 (Apr. 1983).

Mary Billard, Stun-Gun Shocker for Queens Lawyer, American Lawyer, June 1985, at 130.

Peter G. Blain, Tear Gases And Irritant Incapacitants 1-chloroacetophenone, 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile and dibenz[b,f]-1,4-oxazepine, 22 Toxicological Reviews 103 (2003).

Peter Blumberg, Panel OKs Suit after Attack by City Police Dog: Resisting Arrest is No Reason to Stop Civil Rights Claim; Pepper Spray, L.A. Daily J., Jan. 11, 2005, at 1.

Julian Borgo, US Weapons Secrets Exposed, The Guardian, Oct. 29, 2002.

Elliot Borin, Non-Lethal Weapons Shoot to Hurt, Wired Magazine, Sept. 30, 2002.

Claire Bowles, Non-Lethal Weapons Kept Secret, New Scientist, May 8, 2002.

Lee Bowman, Conflict with Iraq: Military use of Nonlethal Weapons is Controversial, Naples Daily News, Mar. 27, 2003.

Kerry Boyd, Military Authorized to Use Riot Control Agents in Iraq, Arms Control Today, May 2003.

Kerry Boyd, Report Calls for Development of Nonlethal Weapons, Arms Control Today, Dec. 2002.

Kerry Boyd, Rumsfeld Wants to Use Riot control Agents in Combat, Arms Control Today, Mar. 2003.

Kerry Boyd, U.S. Grapples With Use of Nonlethal Agents, Arms Control Today, Apr. 2003.

William E. Bozeman & James E. Winslow, Medical Aspects of Less-Lethal Weapons, The Internet Journal of Rescue and Disaster Medicine, 2005.

Phil Brennan, Rumsfeld: New Rules for Non-Lethal Combat, NewsMax, Feb. 6, 2003.

Julie Brienza, Stun Belts Zapped by Civil Liberties Groups, Trail, Apr. 1999, at 99.

Allison Torres Burtka, Electric Shock from Tasers Can Injure and Kill, Lawsuits Claim, Trial, May 2005, at 16.

Allison Torres Burtka, Tasers Continue to Draw Scrutiny, Trial, Jan. 2006, at 74.

David Castellon & C. Mark Brinkley, Zapping the Enemy (Vehicle-Mounted Active Denial System), Air Force Times, Dec. 24, 2001, at 14.

Melissa A. Celli, Jumping the Gun: Can Municipalities be Held Liable under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 for Failing to Provide Police Officers with Less-Lethal Weapons? , 39 Suffolk U. L. Rev. 185 (December 25, 2005).

H.X. Chai, Y.G. Xie, Q.X. Chen & Y. Huang, An Experimental Observation on the Calmative and Antiepileptic Effects of a New Synthetic Drug SC1001-Aminum Intupaias, 20 Journal of West China University of Medical Sciences 21 (Mar. 1989).

Anthony Charles, et al., Penetrating Bean Bag Injury: Intrathoracic Complication Of A Nonlethal Weapon, 53 Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 997 (Nov. 2002).

Victoria Clarke, Letter, Blair May be Sincere, But He is Also Wrong, The Independent on Sunday, Mar. 9, 2003.

Andy Coghlan, What Drugs Can Stun a Crowd in Seconds, New Scientist, Nov. 2, 2002, at 7.

Joseph W. Cook, David P. Fiely & Maura T. McGowan, Non-Lethal Weapons: Technologies, Legalities, and Potential Policies, Airpower Journal, 1995.

Margaret-Ann Coppernoll, The Nonlethal Weapons Debate, 52 Naval War College Review 112, (Spring 1999).

J.A. Coutts, Stun Guns within the Firearms Act, 2 Journal of Criminal Law 262 (August 1988).

Terry C. Cox, Dennis J. Buchholz & David J. Wolf, Blunt Force Head Trauma from Police Impact Weapons: Some Skeletal and Neuropsychological Considerations, 15 J. Police Sci. & Admin. 56 (Mar. 1987).

Shelley A. Nieto Dahlberg, The REACT Security Belt: Stunning Prisoners and Human Rights Groups into Questioning Whether its Use is Permissible Under the United States and Texas Constitutions, 30 St. Mary's Law Journal 239 (Fall 1998).

Edwin A. Davison, A Case for More Effective Non-Lethals, Marine Corps Gazette, June 2000, at 27.

D. de Brito, et al., The Injury Pattern Of a New Law Enforcement Weapon: The Police Bean Bag, 38 Annals of Emergency Medicine 383 (Oct. 2001).

Beth Defalco, Taser: SEC Closes Two Investigations of Stun Gun Maker, Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, Dec. 13, 2005, at 2.

John T.Dillaplain, Nonlethal Concepts Implications for Air Force Intelligence, Airpower Journal, 1994.

P.J. Downey, Weapons and Technology, 1988 New Zealand Law Journal 61 (March 1988).

James C. Duncan, A Primer on the Employment of Non Lethal Weapons, 45 Naval Law Review 1 (1998).

Daniel G. Dupont, Storm Before the Calm, Scientific American, Feb. 2003, at 17.

Editorial, Eye on Pepper Spray, L.A. Daily J., Nov. 7, 1997, at 6.

Editorial, Infernal Weapons (Laser Gun that Causes Blindness), L.A. Daily J., Nov. 29, 1994, at 6.

Editorial, On Law Enforcement ... Pepper Spray Monitoring, L.A. Daily J., Sept. 26, 1994, at 6.

George Edmonson, Super-Secret Microwave Weapons May be Used in Iraq, MSNBC News, Aug. 15, 2002.

Paul Elias, Military Confronts Weapons Quandary, Tulsa World, Mar. 3, 2003.

Paul Elias, Tear Gas Use Induces Debate U.S. Plan for Non-Lethal Agents in Iraq May Violate Treaties, Houston Chronicle, Mar. 3, 2003.

Paul Elias, War Use of ‘Safe’ Gas Tricky Proposal, Akron Beacon Journal, Mar. 3, 2003.

Lois Ember, Non-Lethal Weapons, Government & Policy, Apr. 22, 2004, at 58.

Cheryl Erwin & Robert Philibert, Shocking Treatment: The Use of Tasers in Psychiatric Care, 34 Journal of Law Medicine & Ethics 116 (Spring 2006).

E. Euripidou, R. MacLehose & A. Fletcher, An Investigation into the Short Term and Medium Term Health Impacts of Personal Incapacitant Sprays: A Follow Up of Patients Reported to the National Poisons Information Service (London), 21 Emergency Medicine Journal 548 (2004).

Feedback: US Bio/Chem Weapons Patent, New Scientist, Mar. 4, 2006, at 96.

Geoff S. Fein, Non-Lethal Weapons Find Their Niche in Urban Combat, National Defense, March 2004, at 14.

John J. Fialka & Marilyn Chase, U.S. Agency Set to Issue Report On Nonlethal- Weapon Science, Wall Street Journal, Nov 1. 2002, at B2.

David P. Fidler, The Meaning of Moscow: 'Non-Lethal' Weapons and International Law in the Early 21st Century, 859 International Review of the Red Cross 525 (Sept. 30, 2005).

David P. Fidler, 'Non-Lethal' Weapons and International Law: Three Perspectives on the Future, 17 Medicine, Conflict & Survival 194 (July-September 2001).

Chris Ford, As Protest Debate Grows, Pepper Spray OK'd at DNC, L.A. Daily J., July 7, 2000, at 1.

Chris Ford, Panel Checks 'Less-Lethal' Weapons, L.A. Daily J., Dec. 20, 2000, at 1.

David A. Fulghum, Pentagon Reveals Mobile Pain Ray, Aviation Week & Space Technology, May 7, 2001, at 82.

William Glaberson, Electric Restraint's Use Stirs Charges of Cruelty To Inmates, Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, June 8, 1999, at 1.

Russell W. Glenn, Letting God Rest: Use of Nonlethal Weapons in Peacekeeping Efforts, 140 Armed Forces Journal International 49 (May 2003).

Craig Gordon, Experts Name Deadly Gas, Global Security, Oct. 29, 2002.

Peter N. Grabosky, Technology & Crime Control, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, Australian Institute of Criminology, January 1998.

John Granfield, Jami Onnen & Charles S. Petty, Pepper Spray and In-Custody Deaths, Science and Technology, International Association of Chiefs of Police, March 1994.

Leopold Gregorac, ADT/ADS - Weapons of the 21st Century?, Military Technology, May 2004, at 40.

Michael L. Gross, Bioethics and Armed Conflict: Mapping the Moral Dimensions of Medicine and War, 34 Hastings Center Report 22 (Nov./Dec. 2004).

David Hambling, Instant Expert: Weapons Technology, New Scientist Tech., Sept. 4, 2006.

David Hambling, Star Wars Hit the Streets, New Scientist, Oct. 12, 2002, at 42.

David Hambling, Stun Weapons to Target Crowds, New Scientist, Jun. 19, 2004, at 24.

Edward Hammond, Averting Bioterrorism Begins with US Reforms, Synthesis/Regeneration, Jan. 2002.

Edward Hammond, Bombing the Mind: The Pentagon's Program for Psychopharmalogical Warfare, Counter Punch, July 2, 2002.

Edward Hammond, US Violates International Law: The Pentagon's Secret Chemical Weapons Program, Counter Punch, Sept. 25, 2002.

Charles J. Hanley, In Iraq, U.S. Tests Limits of Chemical Weapons Ban, The Victoria Advocate, Aug. 18, 2003, at 1.

Charles J. Hanley, When is it Riot Control, Not Warfare?, The Commercial Appeal, Aug. 24, 2003.

Alastair Hay, Out of the Straitjacket: The US Wants To Use Potentially Lethal Chemicals Against Iraq - Despite The Fact That This Would Contravene International Law, The Guardian, Mar. 12, 2003.

Alastair Hay, Rita Giacaman, Ramzi Sansur & Steven Rose, Skin Injuries Caused by New Riot Control Agent Used Against Civilians on the West Bank, 22 Medicine, Conflict & Survival 283 (Oct. 2006).

Sid Heal, Crowds, Mobs, and Nonlethal Weapons, Military Review, Mar/Apr 2000, at 2.

Douglas Holdstock, Chemical and Biological Warfare: Some Ethical Dilemmas, 15 Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 356 (2006).

Kevin D.Horton, Paula Burgess, Shannon Rossiter & Wendy E. Kaye, Secondary Contamination of Emergency Department Personnel From O-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile Exposure, 45 Annals of Emergency Medicine 655 (2002).

Joseph M. Howie, Electronic Media Discovery: What You Can't See Can Help (Or Hurt) You, 29 Trial 70 (Jan. 1993).

Howard Hu, et al., Tear Gas: Harassing Agent or Toxic Chemical Weapon?, 262 Journal of the American Medical Association 660 (Aug. 4, 1989).

D. Hughes, et al., Plastic Baton Round Injuries, 22 Emergency Medicine Journal 111 (Feb. 2005).

Institute for Law and Justice, Law Enforcement Options: Newsletter on Less-Than-Lethal Technology Development (1995).

David Isenberg, Next Up: 'Non-Lethal' Chemicals That Kill, Asia Times, April 2003, at 1.

David Isenberg, US Chemical 'Non-Lethal' Weapons in Iraq: A Violation of the Chemical Weapons Convention?, Occasional Papers on International Security Policy, March 2003.

Richard B. Jackson & Jason Ray Hutchison, Lasers Are Lawful As Non-Lethal Weapons, Army Lawyer, August 1, 2006.

James R. Jauchem, et al., Acidosis, Lactate, Electrolytes, Muscle Enzymes, and Other Factors In The Blood Of Sus Scrofa Following Repeated TASER Exposures, 161 Forensic Science International 20 (Aug. 10, 2006).

Mark Johnson, Online Auction Site eBay Agrees to Block Stun-Gun Sales to Bidders from New York, Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, Oct. 11, 2005, at 2.

Bryant Jordan, Scents and Sensibility, Navy Times, Jan. 31, 2005, at 18.

Jay Judge & James R. Schirott, L.A. Police Dept. Cleared of Excessive Force Charges, Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, March 28, 1991, at 3.

Michael Keaney, US Military: Chemical Weapons Alert in Iraq, The Guardian, Mar. 12, 2003.

Matt Kelley, Military Considers Drugs to Calm Crowds, The Milwaukee Sentinel Journal, Sept. 26 2002.

Matt Kelley, Pentagon Discusses Ways to Use Chemicals to Calm Rioters, Sign on San Diego, Sept. 25, 2002.

John M. Kenny, Are You Sure It's Nonlethal?, 127 U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 70 (April 2001).

John M. Kenny, What's So Special about Non-Lethal Weapons' Human Effects— Everything, Marine Corps Gazette, June 2000, at 28.

Henry S. Kenyon, Noisemakers Called to Arms: Cutting-Edge Sonic Equipment Offers Military Applications, Signal, July 2002, at 56.

Stephen James Kerr, Gas Used in Russian Tragedy Part of U.S. Crowd Control Plan, NOW Toronto, October 31, 2002.

Vincent Kiernan, War Over Weapons That Can’t Kill, New Scientist, Dec. 11, 1993, at 14.

Brad Knickerbocker, US Moves into Emerging Bioweapon Era, Global Security: The Christian Science Monitor, Nov. 4, 2002.

Steven Komarow, Pentagon Deploys Array of Non-Lethal Weapons, USA Today, Jul. 25, 2005.

David A. Koplow, Tangled Up In Khaki and Blue: Lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons In Recent Confrontations, 36 Georgetown Journal of International Law 703 (Spring 2005).

Ronald N. Kornblum & Sara K.Reddy, Effects of the TASER in Fatalities Involving Police Confrontation, 36 Journal of Forensic Sciences 434 (March 1991).

Geoffrey Lean, US Prepares to Use Toxic Gases in Iraq, The Independent on Sunday, Mar. 2, 2003.

Geoffrey Lean, Toxic Gas, Drugs in Bush Arsenal, The New Zealand Herald, Mar. 4, 2003.

Nick Lewer, Nonlethal Weapons: Will Non-lethal Weapons Offer Kinder, Gentler Warfare or Expand the Options for Armed Forces to Inflict Pain and Suffering?, Forum for Applied Research & Public Policy, 1999.

Nick Lewer, Non Lethal Weapons: Operational and Policy Developments, The Lancet, December 2003, at 20.

Christian Lowe, U.S. Seeks Better Nonlethal Weapons, Defense News, March 28, 2005, at 7.

K. Maguire, et al., Injuries Caused By The Attenuated Energy Projectile: The Latest Less Lethal Option, 24 Emergency Medicine Journal 103 (Feb. 2007).

Wayne C. McDaniel, et al., Cardiac Safety of Neuromuscular Incapacitating Defensive Devices, 28 Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology S284 (Jan. 2005).

A.T. McPhee, Stink Bomb, 88 Current Science 10 (Jan. 17, 2003).

Bill Mesler, The Pentagon’s Non-Lethal Gas, The Nation, Feb. 17, 2003, at 19.

Greg Meyer, Efforts to Find Less Lethal Weapons Miss Their Mark, L.A. Daily J., June 18, 2002, at 6.

Greg Meyer, Ode to the Taser Gun: The Device Gives Police a Humane Way To Subdue Violent People, L.A. Daily J., Apr. 22, 1991, at 6.

Stephen Mihm, The Quest for the Nonkiller App., New York Times Magazine, Apr. 25, 2004.

Stephen Mihm, Stench Warfare, New York Times Magazine, Dec. 15, 2002, at 126.

Judith Miller & William J. Broad, Hostage Drama in Moscow: The Toxic Agent; U.S. Suspects Opiate in Gas in Russia Raid, New York Times, Oct. 29, 2002, at A1.

Neal Miller, Less-Than-Lethal Force Weaponry: Law Enforcement and Correctional Agency Civil Law Liability for the Use of Excessive Force, 28 Creighton Law Review 733 (April 1995).

Mohamed A. Mughal & Paul D. Fedele, The Improved Response Program, Army Chemical Review, February 2001.

Justin Mullins, Moscow Drama Spurs Hunt For 'Non Lethals,' New Scientist, Dec. 21, 2002, at 23.

Non-Lethal Weaponry and Non-Proliferation, Symposium on Security and Liberty, Transcript, 19 Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy 347 (Spring 2005).

Erik L. Nutley, Non-Lethal Weapons, Center for Strategy and Technology, Aug. 2003.

Edward P. O'Connell & John T. Dillaplain, Nonlethal Concepts Implications for Air Force Intelligence, Airpower Journal, Winter 1994.

E.J. Olajos & H. Salem, Riot Control Agents: Pharmacology, Toxicology, Biochemistry and Chemistry, 21 Journal of Applied Toxicology 355 (Sept/Oct 2001).

Marc Parent, Army’s Hallucinogenic Weapons Unveiled, Jones Report, Apr. 8, 2007.

A. Pearson, Incapacitating Biochemical Weapons: Science, Technology, and Policy for the 21st Century, 13 Nonproliferation Review 151 (July 2006).

Kerri Phillips & James Godfrey, A Dangerous Weapon in Dangerous Hands, 24 Alternative Law Journal 71 (April 1999).

Press Release, Sunshine Project, Non-Lethal Weapons Research in the U.S.: Calmatives and Malodorants (July 2001) (available at http://www.sunshine-project.org/publications/bk/bk8en.html).

Press Release, Sunshine Project, The MCRU Calmatives Study and JNLWD: A Summary of (Public) Facts (September 19, 2002) (available at http://www.sunshine-project.org/incapacitants/mcrucalmfacts.html).

Press Release, Sunshine Project, US Military Operating a Secret Chemical Weapons Program (September 24, 2002) (available at http://www.sunshine-project.org/publications/pr/pr240902.html).

James Randerson, US in Danger of Breaking Chemical Weapons Treaty, New Scientist, Apr. 5 2003, at 6.

Brian Rappert, A Framework for the Assessment of Non-Lethal Weapons, 20 Medicine, Conflict & Survival 35 (Jan/Mar. 2004).

R.H. Rengstorff, et al., The Effect of the Riot Control Agent Dibenz(b,f)-1,4- oxazepine (CR) in the Rabbit Eye, 34 Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 45 (Oct. 1975).

Tim Ripley, Riot Control Equipment, Armada International, March/April 1999.


Aled Roberts, Len Nokes, Stephen Leadbeatter, Hugo Pike, Impact Characteristics of Two Types of Police Baton, 67 Forensic Science International 49 (June 28, 1994).

M.N. Robinson, C.G. Brooks, G.D. Renshaw, Electric Shock Devices and Their Effects on the Human Body, 30 Medicine, Science & Law 285 (October 1990).

Mary Rumsey, Electronic Media Discovery [EMD]: Issues In Electronic Records, Discovery and Evidence, 20 Legal Reference Services Quarterly 19 (December 29, 2001).

David Ruppe, United States Army to Revise Patent Amid Treaty Violation Concerns, Global Security Newswire, May 28, 2003.

David Ruppe, Pentagon Panel Suggests Chemical Calmatives, Global Security Newswire, Apr. 21, 2004.

David Ruppe, United States I: New Research Offers Safer Incapacitating Chemicals, Global Security Newswire, Nov. 6, 2002.

Sabin Russell, Use of Gas Risks Others Following Suit, San Francisco Chronicle, Oct. 31, 2002.

Plamen I. Russev, Restraining U.S. Violations of International Law: An Attempt To Curtail Stun Belt Use and Manufacture in the United States Under the United Nations Convention Against Torture, 19 Georgia State University Law Review 603 (Winter 2002).

Vincent Sautenet, Legal Issues Concerning Military Use Of Non-Lethal Weapons, 7 Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law (June 2000).

Lou Schetzer, Victorian Police Plan to Use Chemical Weapons, 6 Current Issues Criminal Justice 152 (July 1994).

Eric Schmitt, Now, to the Shores of Somalia with Beanbag Guns and Goo. New York Times, Feb. 15, 1995, at A10.

Eli Schuster, Set Tasers on Stun: A New Electric Weapon May Soon Supersede The Old Police Billy Club, Report Newsmagazine, Jan. 1, 2001, at 27.

Robert Selna, Taser's High-Voltage Dispute: Dozens of Death and Injury Claims Hit the Arizona Company, L.A. Daily J., Sept. 22, 2005, at 1.

Wyre Sententia, Your Mind Is A Target: Weaponizing Psychoactive Drugs – Civil Liberties Watch, Humanist, Jan-Feb 2003.

Daniel Simberloff & Peter Stiling, How Risky is Biological Control?, 77 Ecology 1965 (1996).

Joseph Siniscalchi, Non-Lethal Technologies: Implications for Military Strategy, Center for Strategy and Technology, Mar. 1998.

K.J. Smith, The Prevention and Treatment of Cutaneous Injury Secondary to Chemical Warfare Agents: Application Of These Finding To Other Dermatologic Conditions and Wound Healing, 17 Dermatologic Clinics 41 (Jan. 1999).

J. Smith & I. Greaves, The Use of Chemical Incapacitant Sprays: A Review. 52 Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 595 (2002).

J.A. Steele, et al., Plastic Bullet Injuries In Northern Ireland: Experiences During a Week of Civil Disturbance, 46 Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 711 (Apr. 1999).

James M. Strong, Blinding Laser Weapons and Protocol IV: Obscuring the Humanitarian Vision, (Convention on Prohibition or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons), 15 Dickinson Journal of International Law 237 (Fall 1996).

A.C. Thompson, Doping Up the Rabble: Drugs, Microwaves, and the Future of Policing, San Francisco Bay Guardian, October 28, 2004.

Roxana Tiron, Stopping Intruders Can Be a Sticky Mess, National Defense, March 28, 2002.

Juan P. Torres, Victor Correa, Jacob Rosquete, & Tomas Febles, Riot Control Agents and Their Respiratory Effects, 2 Respiratory Medicine Extra 13 (2006).

Jeremy Tully, Iraq War Plans Reminder of Atomic Shame, John Hopkins Newsletter, Mar. 7, 2003.

UK Policing and Less Lethal Technologies - An Operational, Legal And Medical Perspective, 74 Medico-Legal Journal 83 (Summer 2006).

B. Viala, J. Blomet, L. Mathieu & A.H. Hall, Prevention Of CS 'Tear Gas' Eye and Skin Effects and Active Decontamination With Diphoterine: Preliminary Studies In 5 French Gendarmes, 29 Emergency Medicine Journal 5 (2005).

C.R. Warden, Respiratory Agents: Irritant Gases, Riot Control Agents, Incapacitants, And Caustics, 21 Critical Care Clinics 719 (Oct. 2005).

Paul M. Wax, Charles E. Becker & Steven C. Curry, Unexpected 'Gas' Casualties In Moscow: A Medical Toxicology Perspective, 41 Annals of Emergency Medicine 700 (May 2003).

Mark Wheelis & Malcolm Dando, Neurobiology: a Case Study of the Imminent Militarization of Biology, 859 International Review of the Red Cross 553 (Sept. 30, 2005).

Mark Wheelis, Nonlethal Weapons Put Humanity at Risk, Los Angeles Times, Dec. 1, 2002.

Mark Wheelis, Biotechnology and Biochemical Weapons, 9 Nonproliferation Review (Spring 2002).

George N. Whitbred, Offensive Use of Chemical Technologies by US Special Operations Forces in the Global War on Terrorism, Air War College Maxwell Papers, July 2006.

Barbara Wickens, Sticky ‘Em Up, Maclean's, Mar. 6, 1995, at 11.

Richard Willing, Researchers Tested Pot, LSD on Army Volunteers, USA Today, Apr. 5, 2007.

Stephen Willingham, Non-Lethal Rounds Tough to Mass Produce, National Defense, Feb. 2001, at 36.

David Wilson, Blunt Facts About Mob Control Authorities the World Over Are Using Hi-Tech Methods To Tackle Protesting Crowds, South China Morning Post, Dec. 13, 2005.

Steve Wright, Future Sub Lethal, Incapacitating & Paralyzing Technologies, Security Equipment and the Prevention of Torture (October 2002).

E.N. Zerba & M.A. Ruveda, Gas Chromatographic Determination of Riot-Control Agents, 68 Journal of Chromatography 245 (May 1972).


Books & Reports

Robert J. Bunker, Nonlethal Weapons: Terms and References (USAF Institute for National Security Studies, Occasional Paper #15, Jul. 1997).

Michael E. Conti, Beyond Pepper Spray: The Complete Guide to Chemical Agents, Delivery Systems, and Protective Masks (Paladin Press 2002).

Neil Davison, Biochemical Weapons: Lethality, Technology, Development, and Policy, in Neil Davison & Nick Lewer, Bradford Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project Report No. 5, May 2004.

Neil Davison & Nick Lewer, Bradford Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project Report No. 8, Mar. 2006.

Tobias Feakin, Bradford Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project Report No. 3, Aug. 2001.

Federation of American Scientists Working Group on Biological & Chemical Incapacitating Agents (Position Paper, Mar. 2003).

Martin Furmanski, Military Interest in Low-Lethality Biochemical Agents: The Historical Interaction of Advocates, Experts, Pragmatists and Politicians, (Report, Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation 2005).

The Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Human Effects Center of Excellence (HECOE), Human Effectiveness and Risk Characterization of the Electromuscular Incapacitation Device - A Limited Analysis of the Taser: Part I - Technical Report (March 2005).

James S. Ketchum, Chemical Warfare Secrets Almost Forgotten: A Personal Story of Medical Testing of Army Volunteers with Incapacitating Chemical Agents During the Cold War 1955-1975 (ChemBooks 2006).

Ian Kenyon, Moderator, Open Forum on the Chemical Weapons Convention: Challenges to the Chemical Weapons Ban, May 1, 2003.

Lynn Klotz, Martin Furmanski & Mark Wheelis, Beware the Siren's Song: Why 'Non-Lethal' Incapacitating Chemical Agents are Lethal (Federation of American Scientists, March 2003).

David A. Koplow, Non Lethal Weapons (Cambridge Univ. Press 2006).

Joan M. Lakoski, W. Bosseau Murray & John M. Kenny, The Advantages and Limitations of Calmatives for Use as a Non-Lethal Technique (Applied Research Laboratory at Penn State University Oct. 3, 2000).

Nick Lewer, The Future of Non-Lethal Weapons: Technologies, Operations, Ethics and Law (Routledge 2002).

Eugene J. Olajos & Woodhall Stopford, Riot Control Agents: Issues in Toxicology, Safety, and Health (CRC Press 2004).

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction [Chemical Weapons Convention] (April 29, 1997).

Graham Pearson & Malcolm Dando, The Danger to the Chemical Weapons Convention from Incapacitating Chemicals (CWC Review Conference Paper No. 4, March 2003).

Brian Rappert, Non-Lethal Weapons as Legitimizing Forces?: Technology, Politics and the Management of Conflict (Routledge 2003).

Greg R. Schneider, Nonlethal Weapons: Considerations for Decision Makers (ACDIS Occasional Paper, 1997).

Frederick Sidell, Riot Control Agents, in Textbook of Military Medicine (U.S. Army Office of The Surgeon General, Borden Institute 1997).

Rick Smith, Taser Medical Safety Information (TASER International, April 2005).

Satu M. Somani & James A. Romano, Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicity at Low Levels (CRC Press 2000).

Yin Sun & Kwok Ong, Detection Technologies for Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Vapors (CRC Press 2004).

U.S. Department of Defense, 21st Century U.S. Army Flame, Riot Control Agents, and Herbicide Field Manual (Progressive Management 2002).


Cases

Brown v. Thompson, 159 Fed. Appx. 119 (11th Cir. 2005).

Caldwell v. State, 803 So.2d 839 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 2001).

City Of Madera v. Taser Int'l, Inc., No. 05-16468, 2006 WL 3245033 (9th Cir. Mar. 8, 2006).

City of Waco v. Williams, 209 S.W.3d 216 (Tex. App. 2006), petition for review filed, Jan. 31, 2007.

Draper v. Reynolds, 369 F.3d 1270 (11th Cir. 2004).

Ewolski v. City of Brunswick, 287 F.3d 492 (6th Cir. 2003).

Francis v. Pike County, 708 F. Supp. 170 (S.D. Ohio 1988), aff'd, 875 F.2d 863 (Ohio 1989).

Graham v. Conner, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).

Johnson ex rel. Smith v. City of Lincoln Park, 434 F. Supp. 2d 467 (E.D. Mich. 2006).

Logan v. City of Pullman, 392 F. Supp. 2d 1246 (E.D. Wash. 2005).

McKenzie v. City of Milpitas, 738 F. Supp. 1293 (N.D. Cal. 1990), aff'd, 953 F.2d 1387 (9th Cir. 1992).

Nguyen v. State, 858 So.2d 1259 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 2003).

State v. Gay, 566 S.E.2d 121 (N.C. Ct. App. 2002), review denied, 578 S.E.2d 315 (N.C. 2003).

State v. Wood, 825 A.2d 1178 (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div. 2003).

Watts v. State, 578 S.E.2d 231 (Ga. Ct. App. 2003).