Education & Training

Reliability of Impression Evidence

Articles | Books | Scientific Working Groups


Michael J. Saks & Jonathan J. Koehler, The Individualization Fallacy in Forensic Science Evidence, 61 Vanderbilt Law Review 199 (Jan. 2008).

Thomas W. Adair, Richard Tewes, Thomas R. Bellinger & Tara Nicholls, Characteristics of Snow And Their Influence on Casting Methods for Impression Evidence, 57 Journal of Forensic Identification 807 (Nov./Dec.2007).

Nadav Levin, The Forensic Examination of Marks: A Review: 2004-2007, 15th International Forensic Science Symposium, Interpol - Lyon (Oct. 2007).

Guide for Casting Footwear and Tire Impression Evidence, 56 Journal of Forensic Identification 635 (July 2006).

Guide for Lifting Footwear and Tire Impression Evidence, 56 Journal of Forensic Identification 630 (July 2006).

Conclusion Scale for Shoeprint and Toolmarks Examinations, 56 Journal of Forensic Identification 255 (Mar. 2006).

Nalini Natarajan & G. M. Ranjit Cecil, Computer Assisted Analysis of Footprint Geometry, 55 Journal of Forensic Identification 489 (July 2005).

Lesley Hammer & James Wolfe, Shoe and Tire Impressions in Snow: Photography and Casting, 53 Journal of Forensic Identification 647 (Nov. 2003).

Sandy Wiersema, Forensic Tire Impression Identification, 52 Journal of Forensic Identification 480 (July 2002).


West Virginia State Police, West Virginia State Police Laboratory Field Manual (8th ed.).

William J. Bodziak, Tire Tread and Tire Track Evidence: Recovery and Forensic Examination (CRC Press 2008).

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Shoe Print and Tire Tread Examinations, in Handbook of Forensic Services (2007).

Thomas Francis Adams, Alan G. Caddell & Jeffrey Lee Krutsinger, Impression Evidence, in Crime Scene Investigation (2nd ed., Prentice Hall 2004).

Ross M. Gardner, Practical Crime Scene Processing and Investigation (CRC Press 2004).

Photographing and Casting Impression Evidence (Insight Media 2003) (DVD).

Barry A. J. Fisher, Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation (7th ed., CRC Press 2003).

William J. Bodziak, Footwear Impression Evidence: Detection, Recovery and Examination (2nd ed., CRC Press 1999).

Dwane S. Hilderbrand, Footwear, The Missed Evidence: A Field Guide to the Collection and Preservation of Forensic Footwear Impression Evidence (Staggs Publishing 1999).

Scientific Working Groups

Scientific Working Group on Shoeprint and Tire Tread Evidence (SWGTREAD)

SWGTREAD Documents: